Separation Technologies

Separation Technologies include utilization or modification of current commercial physical separation systems (i.e., beneficiation via size, density, froth flotation, magnetic, ultrasound), hydrometallurgy and solvent extraction/digestion processes, and pyrometallurgy techniques
(i.e., electro-slag refining, acid roasting) to separate and concentrate REEs from coal-based resources such as coal, coal refuse, clay/sandstone over/under-burden materials, aqueous effluents, acid mine drainage sludge, and power generation ash. Advanced or new transformational REE separation concepts such as physical, chemical, electrical and thermal extraction, acid/base leaching, and ion exchange; reactive grinding; photochemical, ultrasonic-assisted, microwave-aided, photophoretic, plasma, and supercritical CO2 separation; and advanced sorbents and membrane systems are being considered to further enhance REE separation.

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