Dysprosium

The market producers of Dysprosium include the following:

 
Northern Minerals Ltd.
Greenland Minerals and Energy Ltd.
Mineria Activa
Matamec Explorations Inc.
Namibia Rare Earths Inc.
Alkane Resources Ltd.
Ucore Rare Metals Inc.
Commerce Resources Corp.
Ganzhou Qiandong Rare Earth Group
Longyi Heavy Rare-Earth
Jiangyin Jiahua Advanced Material Resouces
China Minmetals Rare Earth
Ganzhou Rare Earth Mineral Industry
Chenguang Rare Earth

Dysprosium is a chemical element with symbol Dy and atomic number 66. It is a rare earth element with a metallic silver luster. Dysprosium is never found in nature as a free element, though it is found in various minerals, such as xenotime. Naturally occurring dysprosium is composed of seven isotopes, the most abundant of which is 164Dy.

Dysprosium was first identified in 1886 by Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, but it was not isolated in pure form until the development of ion exchange techniques in the 1950s. Dysprosium has relatively few applications where it cannot be replaced by other chemical elements. It is used for its high thermal neutron absorption cross-section in making control rods in nuclear reactors, for its high magnetic susceptibility in data storage applications, and as a component of Terfenol-D (a magnetostrictive material). Soluble dysprosium salts are mildly toxic, while the insoluble salts are considered non-toxic.

Dysprosium is a rare earth element that has a metallic, bright silver luster. It is quite soft, and can be machined without sparking if overheating is avoided. Dysprosium’s physical characteristics can be greatly affected by even small amounts of impurities.[3]

Dysprosium and holmium have the highest magnetic strengths of the elements,[4] especially at low temperatures.[5] Dysprosium has a simple ferromagnetic ordering at temperatures below 85 K (?188.2 °C). Above 85 K (?188.2 °C), it turns into a helical antiferromagnetic state in which all of the atomic moments in a particular basal plane layer are parallel, and oriented at a fixed angle to the moments of adjacent layers. This unusual antiferromagnetism transforms into a disordered (paramagnetic) state at 179 K (?94 °C).[6]

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